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Author David Pietrusza Discusses “1920: The Year of the Six Presidents”


On March 18, 2015, I attended a gathering of readers, writers, and history buffs for a two-part presentation by local best-selling author and historian David Pietrusza, held at the Clifton Park-Halfmoon Library.  The Town of Clifton Park and the Community Arts and Culture Commission sponsored the event.

David Pietrusza

David Pietrusza

David Pietrusza discussed his book, 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents, which Kirkus Reviews honored as one of its Best Books of 2007.  The book chronicles six famous men and their connection to the presidential election of 1920. At that time, past, present, and future presidents jockeyed for the Oval Office: Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, Warren Harding, Calvin Coolidge, Herbert Hoover, and Franklin Roosevelt.  Pietrusza told each of their stories, embellished with the social and political climate of the time as if he had been present, knew the candidates personally, and witnessed the drama first hand.  He thoughtfully set the scene and rolled out the events leading up to the election.

The incumbent Woodrow Wilson was ill, and having already served two terms, he eventually decided not to run for a third time.  Former president and front runner for the 1920 Republican ticket, Theodore Roosevelt, became ill and died in 1919. Franklin Roosevelt ran for vice president on the losing Democratic ticket with James Cox.  In the end, Warren Harding was elected the 29th President of the United States, and his running mate Calvin Coolidge became Vice President.  But in 1923, Warren Harding died in office, leaving Calvin Coolidge to succeed to the presidency.  In the next election, in 1924, Coolidge won the office of president in his own right.


The election of 1920 took place just three months after the 19th Amendment granted voting rights to American women. Pietrusza related the events of August 1920, when Tennessee was the last of the thirty-six states needed to ratify the amendment.  With a twinkling eye, Pietrusza recounted the eleventh hour action of young Tennessee legislator Harry Burn, who changed his vote—the last and deciding vote for women’s suffrage, at his mother’s urging.


The book opens the window even wider on America of 1920, unfolding the changing culture of the day: women casting votes for the first time, the appearance of the Klu Klux Klan, the rising Red Scare, Prohibition, urbanization, automobiles, mass production, chain stores, newsreel coverage, and the transforming of our economy through easy credit.

red quill ink

In the second portion of his presentation, Pietrusza discussed “The Writer’s Art.”  A recurring message was the relevant and wise advice that many writers do not like to hear: basically, to cut unnecessary words, and then cut some more.  He pointed out that researching a topic yields a vast accumulation of knowledge; however, readers may not find each fact quite so fascinating.  He asked, “Is every word wonderful?” and related the question to publication costs based on word count.

When writing for young readers, Pietrusza explained, he learned how to “ratchet down” his information, making it more concise and more easily comprehended.  He encourages this task as “good learning for all writing.”  He advised setting a writing schedule with a fixed number of words per day as a goal.  All research should be completed before beginning to write, he advised, to avoid lags in progress and extra revisions.  His suggestions for editing one’s own work were very clear.  Pietrusza advocates reading through the manuscript line by line, seven times, asking along the way, “Does this belong?”  If we ponder this question seven times on the same piece, he advises: “If you’re not sure it belongs, then kill it.”

Before concluding, Pietrusza described his experiences of self-publishing, traditional publishing, and screenplay writing, with helpful insights into royalties, advances, right for hire, and copyrights.


For more information, follow the link:  to David Pietrusza’s website.  There you can learn more about his critically-acclaimed works such as: 1960: LBJ vs JFK vs Nixon: The Epic Campaign that Forged Three Presidencies;  Rothstein: The Life, Times & Murder of the Criminal Genius Who Fixed the 1919 World Series; Judge and Jury, his biography of baseball’s first commissioner, Kenesaw Mountain Landis, and much more.




Susanne Presents: Women’s History Guest Author Dr. Sally Roesch Wagner on Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Susanne Marie Poulette:

In celebration of Women’s History Month, I have invited guest author Sally Roesch Wagner, Ph.D. to present today. Dr. Wagner is the Founding Director of the Matilda Joslyn Gage Foundation, and adjunct faculty member at Syracuse University. A founder of one of the first college-level women’s studies programs in the United States (CSU Sacramento), she holds one of the first doctorates awarded for work in women’s studies (UC Santa Cruz). Her publications include the influence of Indigenous women on the 19th century woman’s rights movement. She wrote the faculty guide for Not for Ourselves Alone, Ken Burns’ documentary on Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony, and she has appeared in that film and other PBS women’s history programs. Her most recent publication is a chapbook series of Stanton’s edited writings, published by Syracuse Cultural Workers.  Dr. Wagner was selected as one of “21 Leaders for the 21stCentury” by in 2015.  

If you are unacquainted with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, let me introduce you. Stanton was author, lecturer, and chief philosopher of the woman’s rights movement, framing the agenda for woman’s rights that guided the struggle to the present day.  One of the most forward thinkers and prolific writers of her time, Stanton is often overshadowed today by her women’s rights colleagues who walked a less radical line.  In 1848, she and four like-minded women gathered and planned the first Women’s Rights Convention, held in Seneca Falls, New York.  Together they drafted the Declaration of Sentiments outlining the legal rights and privileges of citizenship that were denied to American women.  Eleven resolutions were adopted, but not without great controversy over Stanton’s inclusion of women’s right to vote. Even Lucretia Mott, one of the “founding five” women warned, “Lizzie, thou wilt make the convention ridiculous.”

Stanton continued her quest for the full rights of citizenship for women beyond the vote. Among them: college education, property ownership, wages earned, inheritance, women’s authority over their own bodies, equal guardianship of children, and civil responsibility.  Stanton accomplished much of this through writing.  She wrote some of the most influential books, documents, tracts, and speeches of the women’s rights movement. She wrote a monthly column in Amelia Bloomer’s magazine Lily, and with Susan B. Anthony, she published a newspaper called The Revolution.  Together with Susan B. Anthony and Matilda Joslyn Gage, she published the first three volumes of History of Woman Suffrage, a seminal work documenting the woman’s suffrage movement.  Stanton published The Woman’s Bible;  her autobiography Eighty Years & More: Reminiscences 1815–1897; and The Solitude of Self,  which she first delivered as a speech at the 1892 convention of the National American Woman’s Suffrage Association in Washington, D.C.                                                                            

I am proud and grateful to present Sally Roesch Wagner, Ph.D.


Sally Roesch Wagner as Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Sally Roesch Wagner as Elizabeth Cady Stanton



 By Sally Roesch Wagner


     We know the iconic Elizabeth Cady Stanton, the plump, grandmotherly founding mother of the women’s rights movement, with her white curls encircling her sweet Martha Washington look-alike face, working from early life until the end for women’s right to vote.   That sanitized Stanton would make her shake those curls in disbelief at the description.  She was much more.

     Stan­ton, in fact, complained that she was “sick of the song of suffrage” by the 1880’s.  The attempt by religious conservatives to destroy the sepa­ration of church and state by placing God in the Constitution and prayer in the public schools seemed to her a far more pressing concern than the vote.  “I would rather live under a government of men alone with religious liberty than under a mixed govern­ment without it,” she confided to a suffra­gist news­paper editor.

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

Elizabeth Cady Stanton

     From clerical opposition to women speaking in pubic to wearing the “Bloomer” trousers to demanding equality, the church had stood in the way of woman’s progress. “I have passed from the political to the religious phase of this question,” she wrote a friend, “‘for I now see more clearly than ever, that the arch enemy to woman’s freedom skulks behind the altar.”  With her typical boldness, Stanton drew together a Revising Committee of scholars and ministers to compile a Woman’s Bible, which interpreted the Scrip­tures from the perspective of women.  Affronted by the name, as well as the content, clergy denounced the book as “the work of the devil himself,” to which Stanton calmly responded, “His Satanic Majesty was not invited to join the Revising Committee, which consists of women alone.”

     As suffrage faded in importance for Stan­ton, the larger issues of women’s rights be­came the most important ones.  She brought the strength of her voice and pen to attack the religious and legal denial of divorce to women who were sexually and physically abused in marriages.  The press, in turn, at­tacked her for her unorthodox views.  Still, after her lectures, a flood of women came up to share their experiences.  “Plantation slav­ery is nothing to these unclean marriages,” she wrote in her journal.  “The women gladly hear the new gospel so let the press howl.”   

Elizabeth Cady Stanton with daughter Harriot, 1856

Elizabeth Cady Stanton with daughter Harriot, 1856

     Every child born, she firmly believed, should be chosen, and every woman should be the “absolute sovereign” of her own body.  A woman should have the right “to become a mother or not as her desire, judgment and conscience may dictate,” contended Stanton.

       Nor did she give a hoot for public reaction to her ultra-views on economic injustice. “In this world of plenty, every human being has a right to food, clothes, decent shelter, and the rudiments of education.  Something is rotten in Denmark, when 1/10 of the human family, booted and spurred, rides the masses to de­struction,” she wrote in her autobiography.  For women, the burden was the hardest, for “woman is the great unpaid laborer of the world,” she correctly analyzed, “the upstairs maid with no wages.”

     At the huge gathering called by the National Council of Women to commemorate the 80th birthday of this grandmotherly figurehead of the woman’s rights movement, Stanton documented the progress women had made. Remembering back to how horrified “our con­ser­vative friends” were when she and a few women called for a meeting to “dis­cuss their disabilities,” in the summer of 1848, she recalled that they said, “You have made a great mistake, you will be laughed at from Maine to Texas and beyond the sea; God has set the bounds of woman’s sphere and she should be satisfied with her posi­tion.”  “Their prophecy was more than real­ized,” Stanton reminisced, as “we were unsparingly ridiculed by the press and pulpit both in England and America.”  How sentiments had changed in 47 years, as “many conventions are held each year in both countries to dis­cuss the same ideas; social customs have changed; laws have been modified” and “that first convention, con­sidered a ‘grave mistake’ in 1848, is now referred to as ‘a grand step in progress.’”

     With local and state victories under their belt, a full guarantee of women voting was only a matter of time.  “We who have made our demands on the State have nearly finished this battle,” for “the principle is practically conceded,” Stanton stated.

     Now it was time, she told the “thousands of welcoming faces” paying tribute to her on November 12, 1895 at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City,  to go to the source of the problem. “As learned bishops and editors of religious newspapers are warning us against further demands for new liberties, and clergy­men are still preaching sermons on the ‘rib origin,’ and refuse to receive women as dele­gates to their synods, it is evident that our demands for equal recognition should now be made of the Church for the same rights we have asked of the State for the last fifty years, for the same rights, privileges and immunities that men enjoy.” The Bible, like all documents written by man, is imperfect and limited by the prejudices of men at the time it was written.  From time to time these documents are revised, like we have done with the Constitution, to reflect the changes in society.  And now, she asserted, “We must demand that the canon law, the Mosaic code, the Scriptures, prayer books and liturgies be purged of all invidious distinctions of sex, of all false teaching as to woman’s origin, character and destiny.” It is time, Stanton said, to rewrite the Bible.

     “I shall not grow conservative with age,” Stanton had promised. She kept her promise to the end.


Dr. Sally Roesch Wagner

Dr. Sally Roesch Wagner


This segment is adapted from “The Elizabeth Cady Stanton Collection” chapbook series, published by Syracuse Cultural Workers and available for purchase from


        Heartfelt thanks to Dr. Wagner,    ~ SMPoulette

To visit Dr. Wagner online and link to her video performances, go to                                                                          To link directly to videos: http://        

Click on the photo for information about Dr. Wagner’s 2015 Elizabeth Cady Stanton Bicentennial Tour:                                                                                                          p_solitude_self


To learn more about Elizabeth Cady Stanton:

Address by Elizabeth Cady Stanton on Woman’s Rights, September 1848:

National Women’s History Museum:

PBS Not For Ourselves Alone:

National Park Service, Women’s Rights Historical Park:

Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s “Solitude of Self,” address before the U. S. Senate Committee on Woman Suffrage, February 20, 1892:

Elizabeth Cady Stanton’s “Declaration of Sentiments,”  delivered at the first women ‘s rights convention in Seneca Falls, NY, in 1848: